Background. The objective of this review article is to outline the role of radiotherapy in a curative multimodal treatment concept. Procedure. We have analyzed the data from major multi-institutional prospective trials in Ewing tumors for to evaluate the impact of radiotherapy on local control and survival. Results. Surgery yields in general better local control and survival figures as compared to radiotherapy. The efficacy of radiotherapy as compared to surgery varies among the studies and seems to be dependent on patient selection and sequencing with chemotherapy. Combined local therapy (surgery plus post- or pre-operative radiotherapy) has yielded excellent local control rates in patients with high-risk lesions (e.g., pelvic tumors); although not proven by randomized studies, an impact on survival is likely. Indications for post-operative radiotherapy are unradical or marginal resections and poor histological response. In patients with chest wall primaries, adjuvant hemithorax irradiation has reduced the relapse rate significantly. Preoperative irradiation offers theoretical advantages. Bilateral lung irradiation (as consolidation after chemotherapy) seems to improve prognosis in patients with metastases at diagnosis. Conclusions. Patients with high-risk lesions probably benefit from combined local treatment (surgery plus radiotherapy). Improving local control after radiotherapy is a major issue for future studies, and sequencing with chemotherapy seems to be critical factor. The possible curative potential of radiotherapy in metastatic disease requires further investigation.