Requisite instruments for the establishment of three-dimensional epidermal human skin equivalents—A methods review

Christianna Marie Czyz*, Paul Werner Kunth*, Florian Gruber, Christopher Kremslehner, Christoph Matthias Hammers, Jennifer Elisabeth Hundt

*Korrespondierende/r Autor/-in für diese Arbeit


Human skin equivalents (HSEs) are three-dimensional skin organ culture models raised in vitro. This review gives an overview of common techniques for setting up HSEs. The HSE consists of an artificial dermis and epidermis. 3T3-J2 murine fibroblasts, purchased human fibroblasts or freshly isolated and cultured fibroblasts, together with other components, for example, collagen type I, are used to build the scaffold. Freshly isolated and cultured keratinocytes are seeded on top. It is possible to add other cell types, for example, melanocytes, to the HSE—depending on the research question. After several days and further steps, the 3D skin can be harvested. Additionally, we show possible markers and techniques for evaluation of artificial skin. Furthermore, we provide a comparison of HSEs to human skin organ culture, a model which employs human donor skin. We outline advantages and limitations of both models and discuss future perspectives in using HSEs.

ZeitschriftExperimental Dermatology
Seiten (von - bis)1870-1883
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 11.2023

Strategische Forschungsbereiche und Zentren

  • Forschungsschwerpunkt: Infektion und Entzündung - Zentrum für Infektions- und Entzündungsforschung Lübeck (ZIEL)
  • Zentren: Center for Research on Inflammation of the Skin (CRIS)
  • Forschungsschwerpunkt: Biomedizintechnik


  • 205-19 Dermatologie
  • 205-32 Medizinische Physik, Biomedizinische Technik
  • 205-07 Medizininformatik und medizinische Bioinformatik