Prolonged Door-to-Balloon Time Leads to Endothelial Glycocalyx Damage and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Carl Vahldieck*, Benedikt Fels, Samuel Löning, Laura Nickel, Joachim Weil, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog

*Korrespondierende/r Autor/-in für diese Arbeit


Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) has been reported during acute ischemic events like ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In STEMI, a door-to-balloon time (D2B) of <60 min was shown to reduce mortality and nonfatal complications. Here, we hypothesize that eGC condition is associated with D2B duration and endothelial function during STEMI. One hundred and twenty-six individuals were analyzed in this study (STEMI patients vs. age-/sex-matched healthy volunteers). After stimulating endothelial cells with patient/control sera, the eGC’s nanomechanical properties (i.e., height/stiffness) were analyzed using the atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation technique. eGC components were determined via ELISA, and measurements of nitric oxide levels (NO) were based on chemiluminescence. eGC height/stiffness (both p < 0.001), as well as NO concentration (p < 0.001), were reduced during STEMI. Notably, the D2B had a strong impact on the endothelial condition: a D2B > 60 min led to significantly higher serum concentrations of eGC components (syndecan-1: p < 0.001/heparan sulfate: p < 0.001/hyaluronic acid: p < 0.0001). A D2B > 60 min led to the pronounced loss of eGC height/stiffness (both, p < 0.001) with reduced NO concentrations (p < 0.01), activated the complement system (p < 0.001), and prolonged the hospital stay (p < 0.01). An increased D2B led to severe eGC shedding, with endothelial dysfunction in a temporal context. eGC components and pro-inflammatory mediators correlated with a prolonged D2B, indicating a time-dependent immune reaction during STEMI, with a decreased NO concentration. Thus, D2B is a crucial factor for eGC damage during STEMI. Clinical evaluation of the eGC condition might serve as an important predictor for the endothelial function of STEMI patients in the future.

PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 11.2023

Strategische Forschungsbereiche und Zentren

  • Zentren: Universitäres Herzzentrum Lübeck (UHZL)


  • 205-04 Physiologie
  • 205-12 Kardiologie, Angiologie
  • 201-03 Zellbiologie