BACKGROUND. The current study was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for overall survival (OS), distant metastasis (DM), and local failure (LF) in patients with Stage II/III esophageal carcinoma. METHODS. The following potential prognostic factors were retrospectively investigated in 124 patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone or with radiochemotherapy: age, gender, performance status, tumor location, tumor length, histology, histologic grade, T classification, N classification, International Union Against Cancer stage, chemotherapy, RT dose, and pre-RT hemoglobin level. RESULTS. Using univariate analysis (Kaplan-Meier method), pre-RT hemoglobin level, RT dose, tumor length, chemotherapy, and performance status were significantly associated with OS. Hemoglobin levels of 12.1-14.0 g/dL were associated with the best OS, followed by ≥ 14.1 g/dL and ≤ 12.0 g/dL. DM was significantly influenced by tumor length, RT dose, N classification, and performance status. LF was significantly influenced by pre-RT hemoglobin level, RT dose, and tumor length. Using multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazard model), pre-RT hemoglobin maintained significance for OS (P < 0.001) and LF (P < 0.001), RT dose for OS (P = 0.001), DM (P = 0.031), and LF (P < 0.001), tumor length for OS (P = 0.003), DM (P = 0.017), and LF (P = 0.033), and chemotherapy for OS (P = 0.027). N classification was of borderline significance for DM (P = 0.054). Performance status lost significance for OS (P = 0.73) and LF (P = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS. The strongest predictors for outcome in Stage II/III esophageal carcinoma were RT dose, tumor length, pre-RT hemoglobin level, and chemotherapy. The pre-RT hemoglobin level was an independent prognostic factor significantly associated with OS and LF. A hemoglobin level of 12.1-14 g/dL resulted in a better prognosis than hemoglobin levels ≥ 14 g/dL and ≤ 12 g/dL.