Background: Clinical application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), whether as monotherapy or in combination with established methods, is revolutionizing treatment of head and neck cancer. However, this change in therapeutic concepts requires reevaluation and further development of predictive and prognostic markers, since the survival rates for advanced and particularly human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative disease remain poor. Materials and methods: A selective literature review was performed in PubMed. Literature found with the keywords “cytodiagnostics, circulating tumor cells, liquid biopsy, cfDNA, exosomes” in combination with “head and neck cancer” and/or “immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy” published until March 2020 was included. The articles were selected for their relevance for the current study by the authors. Results: This work provides a review of the current literature and indicates possible applications in the field of head and neck cancers. Liquid biopsy refers to the analysis of circulating tumor cells or of tumor genetic material in body fluids. This minimally invasive analysis can support therapeutic decisions and enable a personalized approach to treating head and neck cancer. Discussion: Before any of these approaches can be established in clinical routine, long-term data and standardization of the methods for isolating and analyzing the markers are needed.