Gender Differences in Takotsubo Syndrome

Luca Arcari, Iván J. Núñez Gil, Thomas Stiermaier, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Federico Guerra, Giuseppina Novo, Beatrice Musumeci, Luca Cacciotti, Enrica Mariano, Pasquale Caldarola, Giuseppe Parisi, Roberta Montisci, Enrica Vitale, Matteo Sclafani, Massimo Volpe, Miguel Corbì-Pasqual, Manuel Martinez-Selles, Manuel Almendro-Delia, Alessandro Sionis, Aitor UribarriIbrahim Akin, Holger Thiele, Natale Daniele Brunetti*, Ingo Eitel, Francesco Santoro

*Korrespondierende/r Autor/-in für diese Arbeit
20 Zitate (Scopus)


Background: Male sex in takotsubo syndrome (TTS) has a low incidence and it is still not well characterized. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to describe TTS sex differences. Methods: TTS patients enrolled in the international multicenter GEIST (GErman Italian Spanish Takotsubo) registry were analyzed. Comparisons between sexes were performed within the overall cohort and using an adjusted analysis with 1:1 propensity score matching for age, comorbidities, and kind of trigger. Results: In total, 286 (11%) of 2,492 TTS patients were men. Male patients were younger (age 69 ± 13 years vs 71 ± 11 years; P = 0.005), with higher prevalence of comorbid conditions (diabetes mellitus 25% vs 19%; P = 0.01; pulmonary diseases 21% vs 15%; P = 0.006; malignancies 25% vs 13%; P < 0.001) and physical trigger (55 vs 32% P < 0.01). Propensity-score matching yielded 207 patients from each group. After 1:1 propensity matching, male patients had higher rates of cardiogenic shock and in-hospital mortality (16% vs 6% and 8% vs 3%, respectively; both P < 0.05). Long-term mortality rate was 4.3% per patient-year (men 10%, women 3.8%). Survival analysis showed higher mortality rate in men during the acute phase in both cohorts (overall: P < 0.001; matched: P = 0.001); mortality rate after 60 days was higher in men in the overall (P = 0.002) but not in the matched cohort (P = 0.541). Within the overall population, male sex remained independently associated with both in-hospital (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.16-4.40) and long-term mortality (HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.32-2.52). Conclusions: Male TTS is featured by a distinct high-risk phenotype requiring close in-hospital monitoring and long-term follow-up.

ZeitschriftJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Seiten (von - bis)2085-2093
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 31.05.2022

Strategische Forschungsbereiche und Zentren

  • Zentren: Universitäres Herzzentrum Lübeck (UHZL)


  • 205-12 Kardiologie, Angiologie