Controlling motion prediction errors in radiotherapy with relevance vector machines

Robert Dürichen*, Tobias Wissel, Achim Schweikard

*Korrespondierende/r Autor/-in für diese Arbeit
2 Zitate (Scopus)


Results : Limiting the variance by a threshold resulted in an increased precision with a decreased duty cycle. All hybrid algorithms showed an increased prediction accuracy compared to using only their individual algorithms. The best hybrid algorithm, $$\hbox {HYB}_{\textit{RVM}}$$HYBRVM, can decrease the mean RMSE over all 304 motion traces from $$0.18\,$$0.18mm for a linear RVM to $$0.17\,$$0.17mm.

Conclusions : The predicted variance was shown to be an efficient metric to control prediction errors, resulting in a more robust radiotherapy treatment. The hybrid algorithm $$\hbox {HYB}_{\textit{RVM}}$$HYBRVM could be translated to clinical practice. It does not require further parameters, can be completely parallelised and easily further extended.

Purpose : Robotic radiotherapy can precisely ablate moving tumors when time latencies have been compensated. Recently, relevance vector machines (RVM), a probabilistic regression technique, outperformed six other prediction algorithms for respiratory compensation. The method has the distinct advantage that each predicted point is assumed to be drawn from a normal distribution. Second-order statistics, the predicted variance, were used to control RVM prediction error during a treatment and to construct hybrid prediction algorithms.

Methods : First, the duty cycle and the precision were correlated to the variance by interrupting the treatment if the variance exceeds a threshold. Second, two hybrid algorithms based on the variance were developed, one consisting of multiple RVMs ($$\hbox {HYB}_{\textit{RVM}}$$HYBRVM) and the other of a combination between a wavelet-based least mean square algorithm (wLMS) and a RVM ($$\hbox {HYB}_{\textit{wLMS}-\textit{RVM}}$$HYBwLMS-RVM). The variance for different motion traces was analyzed to reveal a characteristic variance pattern which gives insight in what kind of prediction errors can be controlled by the variance.

ZeitschriftInternational Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Seiten (von - bis)363-371
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 01.04.2015


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