OBJECTIVE: To clinically characterize patients with anti-metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 encephalitis, to identify prognostic factors, and to study the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and effects of antibodies on neuronal mGluR1 clusters. METHODS: Clinical information on new and previously reported patients was reviewed. Antibodies to mGluR1 and IgG subclasses were determined with brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays, and their effects on mGluR1 clusters were studied on rat hippocampal neurons. RESULTS: Eleven new patients were identified (10 adults, 1 child);4 were female. In these and 19 previously reported cases (n = 30, median age 55 years), the main clinical manifestation was a subacute cerebellar syndrome that in 25 (86%) patients was associated with behavioral/cognitive changes or other neurologic symptoms. A tumor was found in 3 of 26 (11%). Brain MRI was abnormal in 7 of 19 (37%) at onset and showed cerebellar atrophy in 10 of 12 (83%) at follow-up. Twenty-five of 30 (83%) patients received immunotherapy. Follow-up was available for 25: 13 (52%) had clinical stabilization; 10 (40%) showed significant improvement; and 2 died. At the peak of the disease, patients with bad outcome at 2 years (modified Rankin Scale score > 2, n = 7) were more likely to have higher degree of initial disability, as reflected by a worse Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score, and more frequent need of assistance to walk. Antibodies to mGluR1 were mainly IgG1 and caused a significant decrease of mGluR1 clusters in cultured neurons. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-mGluR1 encephalitis manifests as a severe cerebellar syndrome, often resulting in long-term disability and cerebellar atrophy. The antibodies are pathogenic and cause significant decrease of mGluR1 clusters in cultured neurons.
Strategische Forschungsbereiche und Zentren
- Forschungsschwerpunkt: Biomedizintechnik