Characteristics Associated with Refractory Course, Blindness, and Treatment Strategy-Related Outcomes in Patients with Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid

Khalaf Kridin*, Nina Van Beek, Elena Bühler, Anne S. Kochan, Mahdy Ranjbar, Stefan Beissert, Detlef Zillikens, Claudia Günther, Enno Schmidt

*Korrespondierende/r Autor/-in für diese Arbeit


Importance: Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a rare and heterogeneous subepithelial autoimmune bullous disease with predominant mucosal involvement. Characteristics associated with the disease course and complications are yet to be delineated. Objectives: To evaluate characteristics associated with refractory disease course and blindness among patients with MMP and to estimate the association of different treatment strategies with the prognostic outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients diagnosed with MMP and followed up for more than 1 year from 2007 to 2020 in 2 tertiary referral centers. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2009, to June 30, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Characteristics associated with refractory disease course and blindness were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression model. Results: The study encompassed 121 patients with MMP (mean [SD] age, 66.0 [14.0] years; 78 (64.5%) were women), of whom 56 (46.3%) followed a refractory course and 13 (10.7%) developed blindness. Anti-LAD-1 IgA (odds ratio [OR], 3.42; 95% CI, 1.11-10.52; P =.03) and anti-dermal-epidermal/epithelial junction (DEJ) IgG (by indirect immunofluorescence on human salt-split skin; OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.26-6.78; P =.01) were significantly associated with refractory course. Development of blindness was associated with older age (≥68 years; OR, 6.38; 95% CI, 1.35-30.16; P =.009), initial presentation with bilateral ocular involvement (OR, 7.92; 95% CI, 2.04-30.68; P =.001), and scarring ocular lesions (OR, 5.11; 95% CI, 1.47-17.79; P =.006). However, 4 (30.8%) and 2 (15.4%) of those experiencing blindness had no ocular scarring lesions and unilateral ocular involvement at the onset of their disease, respectively. Patients progressing to blindness were more likely to be treated by 3 or more immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory drugs (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.17-14.14; P =.02) and by cyclophosphamide (OR, 7.64; 95% CI, 2.24-26.09; P <.001). Patients developing blindness and refractory course were more frequently managed by intravenous immunoglobulin (OR, 7.64; 95% CI, 2.24-26.09; P <.001 and OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 1.42-8.45; P =.005, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: Findings of this cohort study support that patients with MMP with anti-LAD-1 IgA and anti-DEJ IgG reactivity should be carefully monitored. While initial bilateral ocular disease and scarring ocular lesions were associated with blindness, patients initially presenting with unilateral and nonscarring ocular disease may still develop severe vision impairment..

ZeitschriftJAMA Dermatology
Seiten (von - bis)198-203
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 15.02.2023

Strategische Forschungsbereiche und Zentren

  • Forschungsschwerpunkt: Infektion und Entzündung - Zentrum für Infektions- und Entzündungsforschung Lübeck (ZIEL)
  • Zentren: Center for Research on Inflammation of the Skin (CRIS)


  • 204-05 Immunologie
  • 205-19 Dermatologie
  • 206-11 Augenheilkunde