The use of cetrorelix within ovarian-stimulation protocols demonstrates several advantages compared with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist-containing protocols, which include, for example, significantly less time for analogue treatment and a reduction in the amount of gonadotropins needed. Furthermore, fewer side effects can be expected. There is no difference regarding endometrium quality and hormone profiles, and the results of assisted reproduction cycles are comparable. Cetrorelix also seems to be useful in the treatment of endometriosis which, in most cases, is an estrogen-dependent disease. Furthermore, fewer side effects occur with this agent (e.g., postmenopausal symptoms) and no estradiol add-back is needed. In the future, new nonpeptic GnRH antagonists are expected to be available for oral administration. Although they are still under investigation, these agents have the potential to improve patients' comfort and compliance.